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歐盟計劃將與歐盟相關的船舶碳排放都算進歐盟碳排放機制,並購買許可證

时间:2020-06-04 点击:

根据欧盟委员会(European Commission)关于航运二氧化碳排放量的第一份报告,如果欧盟成功地将航运纳入碳排放控制计划,那么欧盟各国的碳排放管理部门可能会从欧洲以外地区获取大量碳排放数字。
        航行在國際水域的船只造成的汙染通常使各國國內的減排目標付諸東流,但歐盟執行官表示,歐盟外與歐盟相關的碳排放必須爲歐盟付出的萬億歐元限制碳排放的努力做出貢獻,以保證歐盟在2050年前實現“氣候中性”經濟。
它希望通過加入歐盟溫室氣體排放貿易機制(ETS)來遏制航運業的碳排放,該體系迫使排放者在汙染時購買碳排放許可證。
歐盟委員會的一份報告稱,這將使歐盟27個成員國以及挪威、冰島和列支敦士登以外的歐洲經濟區(EEA)産生的大部分碳排放符合歐盟碳排放法規。
        報告稱,在2018年與歐洲經濟區有關的海運産生的1.38億噸二氧化碳中,約三分之二來自歐洲經濟區以外開始或結束的航程。
        報告稱,這些排放總量占歐盟二氧化碳排放總量的近4%,與比利時的排放量大致相當。
報告涵蓋了11600艘超過最小規模的船舶的碳排放,占世界商船隊的38%。
使船舶停止碳排放需要對船舶的操作方式和燃料供應方式進行地震性的改變,例如使船舶能夠由氫或電提供動力。
向ETS增加航運碳排放的計劃得到了大多數歐盟立法者的支持,但行業組織表示,這將幹擾國際海事組織(IMO)制定全球減排措施而做出的努力。
        國際海事組織希望到2050年將該部門的溫室氣體排放量與2008年的水平相比減半。報告說,如果不加以控制,到2050年,全球航運排放量可能激增至08年的250%。
以下是原文:


The European Union's carbon market could capture a large chunk of emissions from outside Europe if the bloc succeeds in including shipping in the scheme, according to the European Commission's first report on maritime CO2 emissions.
Pollution from ships plying international waters typically escapes countries' domestic emissions-cutting targets, but the EU's executive has said the sector must contribute to its trillion-euro push to achieve a "climate neutral" economy by 2050.
        forces emitters to buy carbon permits when they pollute.A Commission report said this would bring under carbon market regulations much of the emissions produced outside the European Economic Area (EEA), which includes the 27 EU states plus Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.
Of the 138 million tonnes of CO2 produced by shipping related to the EEA in 2018, roughly two-thirds were from voyages that started or ended outside the EEA, the report said.
These total emissions made up nearly 4% of total EU CO2 emissions, and are roughly equal to those of Belgium, it said.
        The report covered emissions from 11,600 ships above a minimum size, representing 38% of the world's merchant fleet.
        Decarbonizing the shipping sector will require seismic changes to the way ships are operated and fueled, such as enabling vessels to be powered by hydrogen or electricity.
        The plan to add shipping to the ETS has support from most EU lawmakers, but industry groups say it would interfere with International Maritime Organization (IMO) efforts to develop global measures to regulate emissions.
The IMO wants to halve the sector's greenhouse gas output by 2050, compared with 2008 levels. If left unchecked, it says, global emissions from shipping could balloon by up to 250% by 2050.